LiDAR, which stands for Light Detection and Ranging, is a technology that uses laser light to measure distances and create a map of objects in the environment. This system works by sending out a pulse of light from a source (transmitter) and detecting the reflected light from objects in the scene. The receiver then measures the time of flight (TOF) to calculate the distance to the object. This data is then used to generate a distance map of the objects in the environment.
LiDAR-based navigation systems are becoming increasingly popular in robot vacuum cleaners. For instance, the 360 S10 robot vacuum cleaner uses a triple LiDAR system to navigate efficiently and avoid obstacles. This system also helps to improve battery life and reduce noise levels. LiDAR is an active remote sensing system, meaning that it generates its own energy in the form of light.
This light is emitted quickly from a laser source and travels to the ground, where it is reflected off objects like buildings and trees. The reflected light then returns to the LiDAR sensor, where it is recorded. The time it takes for the light to travel to the ground and back is used to calculate the distance traveled. The distance traveled is then converted into elevation data using GPS coordinates and an internal measurement unit (IMU).
This data can be used to create 3D maps of an environment. However, one of the main drawbacks of 2D LiDAR is that if an object is hidden by another at the height of the LiDAR or has an inconsistent shape, this information will be lost. The SNCF recently conducted a study comparing UAV LiDAR surveys with traditional methods in a real-world situation. The results showed that LiDAR was faster and more accurate than visual SLAM, but also more expensive.
In conclusion, LiDAR navigation systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their ability to generate accurate 3D maps of an environment. However, they are also more expensive than traditional methods and can be limited by objects that are hidden or have an inconsistent shape. Despite these drawbacks, LiDAR navigation systems are still a valuable tool for robot vacuum cleaners and other autonomous vehicles.